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Title: Marine-Derived Chitosan Nanoparticles Improved the Intestinal Histo-Morphometrical Features in Association with the Health and Immune Response of Grey Mullet (Liza ramada)
Authors: Mahmoud A.O. Dawood
Mahmoud S. Gewaily
Ali A. Soliman
Mustafa Shukry
Asem A. Amer
Elsayed M. Younis
Abdel Wahab A. Abdel-Warith
Hien Van Doan
Adel H. Saad
Mohamed Aboubakr
Hany M.R. Abdel-Latif
Sabreen E. Fadl
Keywords: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2020
Abstract: Marine-derived substances are known for their beneficial influences on aquatic animals' performances and are recommended to improve intestinal health, immunity, and anti-oxidative status. The present study investigates the role of chitosan nanoparticles on the intestinal histo-morphometrical features in association with the health and immune response of Grey Mullet (Liza ramada). Chitosan nanoparticles are included in the diets at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg and introduced to fish in a successive feeding trial for eight weeks. The final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR) parameters are significantly increased while feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreases by chitosan nanoparticles compared to the control (p < 0.05). The morphometric analysis of the intestines reveals a significant improvement in villus height, villus width, and the number of goblet cells in chitosan-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there is a positive correlation between the thickness of the enterocyte brush border and the chitosan dose, referring to an increasing absorptive activity. Histologically, the intestinal wall of Grey Mullet consists of four layers; mucosa, sub-mucosa, tunica muscularis (muscular layers), and serosa. The histological examination of the L. ramada intestine shows a normal histo-morphology. The epithelial layer of intestinal mucosa is thrown into elongated finger-like projections, the intestinal villi. The values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells (RBCs), total protein (TP), albumin, and globulin are significantly increased in fish fed 1, and 2 g/kg of chitosan nanoparticles compared to fish fed 0 and 0.5 g/kg (p < 0.05). The highest levels of TP and albumin are observed in fish fed 1 g/kg diet (p < 0.05). The lysozyme activity and phagocytic index are significantly enhanced by feeding chitosan nanoparticles at 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg, whereas the phagocytic activity is improved in fish fed 1 and 2 g/kg (p < 0.05). The highest lysozyme activity and phagocytic index are observed in fish fed 1 g/kg. SOD is significantly activated by feeding chitosan nanoparticles at 1 g/kg. Simultaneously, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities also are enhanced by feeding chitosan at 1 and 2 g/kg, compared to fish fed 0 and 0.5 g/kg (p < 0.05). The highest GPx and CAT activities are observed in fish fed 1 g/kg (p < 0.05). Conversely, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels are decreased by feeding chitosan at 1 and 2 g/kg, with the lowest being in fish fed 1 g/kg (p < 0.05). To summarize, the results elucidate that L. ramada fed dietary chitosan nanoparticles have a marked growth rate, immune response, and anti-oxidative response. These improvements are attributed to the potential role of chitosan nanoparticles in enhancing intestinal histo-morphometry and intestinal health. These results soundly support the possibility of using chitosan nanoparticles at 1-2 g/kg as a feasible functional supplement for aquatic animals.
ISSN: 16603397
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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