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|Title:||Characterization of two siderophores produced by Bacillus megaterium: A preliminary investigation into their potential as therapeutic agents|
Robert C. Hider
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology|
|Abstract:||© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Background: Microorganisms produce siderophores in order to scavenge iron from the environment and this study focuses on the characterization of the two siderophores secreted by Bacillus megaterium. The general biological properties and pharmacokinetics following oral application of these compounds are reported. Methods: Under optimized culture conditions, the siderophores were harvested, purified by chromatography and identified using LC-MS and NMR. Two dihydroxamate siderophores were isolated, schizokinen (MW = 420) and schizokinen imide (MW = 402). Results: Both compounds demonstrate strong antioxidant activity and were found to be relatively nontoxic to both human hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh7) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The siderophores possess a strong affinity for iron(III) and decrease the levels of the labile iron pool (LIP) in iron-loaded cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Schizokinen, was detected as both the free siderophore and the iron complex in the plasma and urine of rats after oral gavage. Conclusions: However, the bioavailability was low and thus schizokinen, like deferoxamine, has no potential as an orally active iron chelator for the treatment of systemic iron overload. General significance: By virtue of the high affinity of schizokinen for tribasic metals, this siderophore does have considerable potential for the chelation of gallium(III) and the development of clinical diagnostic reagents.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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