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|Title:||Potential of hard candy containing spray-dried vernonia cinerea extract with total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and nicotine replacement as an anti-smoking aid|
|Keywords:||Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics|
|Abstract:||© 2019 Phcogj.Com. Backgound: Vernonia cinerea (VC) is a natural plant claimed to reduce cigarette smoking. Some pilot anti-smoking products with nicotine replacement, such as lozenges or gum, have been presented, but with some adverse effects. Thus, application of VC as a new-anti-smoking product is very challenging. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the active compounds; total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and nicotine, and study antioxidant activity on scavenging 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrzayl (DPPH) radicals of extracts prepared by spray drying (SD) and freeze drying (FD) techniques for pilot hard candy. Methods: Raw VC materials of mixed parts, i.e., the stem, flowers and leaves, were made to form extracts by FD and SD techniques. Then, extract from the SD technique was manufactured industrially into hard candy containing glucose syrup and refined glucose. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, nicotine, scavenging activity of extracts, VC hard candy and placebo candy were evaluated by folin-ciocalteau reagent, aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, high-performance liquid chromatography, ABTS cation decolorization and DPPH protocols. Results: Total phenolic compounds were significantly different between extracts, but total flavonoids and nicotine were slightly higher in SD extract. Antioxidant activity of both extracts on ABTS radicals was not significantly different, but the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on DPPH radicals was significantly higher in SD extract when compared to the FD extract. Finally, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and nicotine, as well as scavenging activity could be detected in hard candy. Conclusion: VC can be used as an anti-smoking aid with nicotine replacement and anti-oxidant compounds in pilot hard candy.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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