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|Title:||Increased Risk of Executive Function and Emotional Behavioral Problems among Virologically Well-Controlled Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents in Thailand and Cambodia|
|Authors:||Stephen J. Kerr|
Kathleen M. Malee
Penh Sun Ly
Claude A. Mellins
|Abstract:||© 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Background:Large numbers of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are aging into adolescence. We examined cognitive and behavioral outcomes in a longitudinal cohort of Asian youth.Methods:We followed up 231 PHIV, 125 perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU), and 138 HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) adolescents (aged 10 years and older), matched by age/sex, in Thailand and Cambodia for 3 years. Executive function was assessed with Children's Color Trails Tests 1 and 2 (CCTT-1 and -2), the design fluency test, and the verbal fluency test. Working memory (Freedom from Distractibility Index) and processing speed index were assessed using WISC-III. Visual memory was assessed by design memory and design recognition subtests of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML-2) and behavioral problems using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Generalized estimating equations examined adjusted odds ratios of cognitive impairment (Z-scores ≥2 SD below age-adjusted means of the HUU group) and CBCL T-scores in the borderline-clinical range (T-Scores ≥60) in PHIV and HEU versus HUU youth, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and caregiver characteristics.Results:The median age at enrollment was 13.8 years, with 58% women and 63% Thai participants. PHIV youth had >86% virological suppression and significantly higher impairment rates on CCTT-1 and -2 tests, design fluency test, verbal fluency tests, design memory, and CBCL internalizing and externalizing problems. Results were mostly similar between HEU and HUU groups, apart from higher impairment rates on CCTT-1 and internalizing problems in HEU.Conclusion:Asian adolescents with PHIV remain at risk of cognitive and mental health problems despite HIV treatment. Selective risks are observed among HEU youth.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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