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Title: The Amount of Relative Curve Correction Is More Important Than Upper Instrumented Vertebra Selection for Ensuring Postoperative Shoulder Balance in Lenke Type 1 and Type 2 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
Authors: John Alex Sielatycki
Meghan Cerpa
Eduardo C. Beauchamp
Takayoshi Shimizu
Chao Wei
Suthipas Pongmanee
Hui Wang
Rui Xue
Rongping Zhou
Xinchun Liu
Jun Yang
Yuan Suomao
Lawrence G. Lenke
Keywords: Medicine
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2019
Abstract: © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Study Design.Retrospective review of a prospectively collected multicenter database.Objective.To assess how "overcorrection" of the main thoracic curve without control of the proximal curve increases the risk for shoulder imbalance in Lenke type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS).Summary of Background Data.Postop shoulder imbalance is a common complication following AIS surgery. It is thought that a more cephalad upper-instrumented vertebra (UIV) decreases the risk of shoulder imbalance in Lenke type 1 and 2 curves; however, this has not been proven.Methods.Thirteen surgeons reviewed preop and 5-year postop clinical photos and PA radiographs of patients from a large multicenter database with Lenke type 1 and 2 AIS curves who were corrected with pedicle screw/rod constructs. Predictors of postop shoulder imbalance were identified by univariate analysis; multivariate analysis was done using the classification and regression tree method to identify independent drivers of shoulder imbalance.Results.One hundred forty-five patients were reviewed. The UIV was T3-T5 in 87% of patients, with 8.9% instrumented up to T1 or T2. Fifty-two (36%) had shoulder imbalance at 5 years. On classification and regression tree analysis when the proximal thoracic (PT) Cobb angle was corrected more than 52%, 80% of the patients had balanced shoulders. Similarly, when the PT curve was corrected less than 52% and the main thoracic (MT) curve was corrected less than 54%, 87% were balanced. However, when the PT curve was corrected less than 52%, and the MT curve was corrected more than 54%, only 41% of patients had balanced shoulders (P=0.05). This relationship was maintained regardless of the UIV level.Conclusion.In Lenke type 1 and 2 AIS curves, significant correction of the main thoracic curve (>54%) with simultaneous "under-correction" (<52%) of the upper thoracic curve resulted in shoulder height imbalance in 59% of patients, regardless of the UIV. This suggests the PT curve must be carefully scrutinized in order to optimize shoulder balance, especially when larger correction of the MT curve is performed.Level of Evidence: 2.
ISSN: 15281159
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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