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|Title:||Genetic regulatory pathways of split-hand/foot malformation|
|Authors:||Piranit N. Kantaputra|
Bruce M. Carlson
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology|
|Abstract:||© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is caused by mutations in TP63, DLX5, DLX6, FGF8, FGFR1, WNT10B, and BHLHA9. The clinical features of SHFM caused by mutations of these genes are not distinguishable. This implies that in normal situations these SHFM-associated genes share an underlying regulatory pathway that is involved in the development of the central parts of the hands and feet. The mutations in SHFM-related genes lead to dysregulation of Fgf8 in the central portion of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and subsequently lead to misexpression of a number of downstream target genes, failure of stratification of the AER, and thus SHFM. Syndactyly of the remaining digits is most likely the effects of dysregulation of Fgf-Bmp-Msx signaling on apoptotic cell death. Loss of digit identity in SHFM is hypothesized to be the effects of misexpression of HOX genes, abnormal SHH gradient, or the loss of balance between GLI3A and GLI3R. Disruption of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of SHFM. Whatever the causative genes of SHFM are, the mutations seem to lead to dysregulation of Fgf8 in AER cells of the central parts of the hands and feet and disruption of Wnt-Bmp-Fgf signaling pathways in AER.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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