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|Title:||Synergy in the adulticidal efficacy of essential oils for the improvement of permethrin toxicity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)|
Arunee Kongdee Aldred
|Keywords:||Immunology and Microbiology|
|Abstract:||© 2018 The Author(s). Background: In a previous screening program for mosquitocides from local edible plants in Thailand, essential oils (EOs) of Cyperus rotundus, Alpinia galanga and Cinnamomum verum, were found to possess promising adulticidal activity against Aedes aegypti. With the aim of reducing usage of conventional insecticides and improving the management of resistant mosquito populations, this study was designed to determine the potential synergism in the adulticidal efficacy of EOs on permethrin toxicity against Ae. aegypti, both pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible strains. Methods: EOs extracted from rhizomes of C. rotundus and A. galanga as well as C. verum barks were evaluated for chemical compositions and adulticidal activity against Muang Chiang Mai-susceptible (MCM-S) and Pang Mai Dang-resistant (PMD-R) strains of Ae. aegypti. Adulticidal bioassays of EO-permethrin mixtures for synergistic activity were also performed on these Ae. aegypti strains. Results: Chemical characterization by the GC-MS analytical technique demonstrated that 48 compounds were identified from the EOs of C. rotundus, A. galanga and C. verum, representing 80.22%, 86.75% and 97.24%, respectively, of all compositions. Cyperene (14.04%), β-bisabolene (18.27%) and cinnamaldehyde (64.66%) were the main constituents of C. rotundus, A. galanga and C. verum oils, respectively. In adulticidal bioassays, EOs of C. rotundus, A. galanga and C. verum were effective in killing Ae. aegypti, both MCM-S and PMD-R strains, with LD50values of 10.05 and 9.57 μg/mg female, 7.97 and 7.94 μg/mg female, and 3.30 and 3.22 μg/mg female, respectively. The adulticidal efficacy against MCM-S and PMD-R Ae. aegypti of these EOs was close to that of piperonyl butoxide (PBO, LD50values = 6.30 and 4.79 μg/mg female, respectively) but less pronounced than that of permethrin (LD50values = 0.44 and 3.70 ng/mg female, respectively). Nevertheless, combination-based bioassays discovered the accomplished synergism of EOs together with permethrin. Significant synergistic effects with permethrin against both the strains of Ae. aegypti were recorded in the EOs of C. rotundus and A. galanga. Addition of C. rotundus and A. galanga oils decreased the LD50values of permethrin against MCM-S dramatically from 0.44 to 0.07 and 0.11 ng/mg female, respectively, with synergism ratio (SR) values of 6.28 and 4.00, respectively. Furthermore, EOs of C. rotundus and A. galanga also reduced the LD50values of permethrin against PMD-R drastically from 3.70 to 0.42 and 0.003 ng/mg female, respectively, with SR values of 8.81 and 1233.33, respectively. Conclusions: The synergy of enhanced adulticidal toxicity recorded from EO-permethrin combinations against both strains of Ae. aegypti presents a promising role of EOs as a synergist for improving mosquitocidal efficacy, particularly in situations where conventional compounds are ineffective or inappropriate.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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