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|Title:||Antiinflammatory activities of crebanine by inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 activation through suppressing MAPKs and Akt signaling in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages|
|Keywords:||Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics|
|Abstract:||Copyright © 2016 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. Crebanine, an aporphine alkaloid, displays various biological activities such as anticancer and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we further investigated the suppressive effect of crebanine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of proinflammatory mediators and the molecular mechanisms underlying these activities in RAW264.7 macrophages. Crebanine inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, crebanine suppressed LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and prostaglandin E2and reduced the expression of iNO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW264.7 cells. Crebanine suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signalingregulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK signaling. In addition, the specific inhibitor of MAPKs and Akt reduced the expression of IL-6 and NO production in LPS-induced macrophages. Furthermore, crebanine inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 at Ser536 but not the p65 translocation to the nucleus and inhibitory factor kappa B alpha degradation. Crebanine also suppressed phosphorylation and nucleus translocation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). These observations suggest that the antiinflammatory properties of crebanine may stem from the inhibition of proinflammatory mediators via suppression of the NF-κB, AP-1, MAPKs, and Akt signaling pathways.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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