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|Title:||Enhancement of salivary human neutrophil peptide 1-3 levels by probiotic supplementation|
|Abstract:||© 2015 Wattanarat et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Background: Probiotic supplementation can reduce mutans streptococci (MS) numbers. One of its proposed mechanisms is immunomodulation. Salivary human neutrophil peptide 1-3 (HNP1-3) levels have previously been demonstrated to be higher in caries-free than in caries-susceptible children, suggesting their preventive role against caries. We aimed to compare salivary HNP1-3 levels between an intervention group with probiotics and a control group. Methods: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Sixty schoolchildren were equally allocated to either an intervention or control group. The use of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, has shown to reduce MS numbers in volunteers. In unstimulated whole saliva, HNP1-3 levels were assayed by ELISA, and MS and lactobacilli counts were assayed by colony counting at baseline (T0) and at 3 (T3), 6 (T6), and 12 months (T12). The International Caries Detection and Assessment system was used to assess caries status. Results: In the intervention group, salivary HNP1-3 levels were significantly greater than those in the control group at T3 and T6 (p < 0.001), whereas MS counts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01). In the intervention group, positive and negative correlations were found between HNP1-3 levels and lactobacilli counts and between MS and lactobacilli counts, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between enhanced HNP1-3 levels and decreased MS numbers. The caries increment for the pit and fissure surface, but not for the smooth surfaces, was significantly decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Probiotics can temporarily enhance salivary HNP1-3 levels; however, their action to reduce new pit and fissure caries probably involves microbial interactions. Trial registration:TCTR20130904001(registration date: September 04, 2013).|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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