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|Title:||Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water|
|Abstract:||© 2015 Elsevier B.V. Abstract A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min<sup>-1</sup>, sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L<sup>-1</sup>, a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L<sup>-1</sup> were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h<sup>-1</sup> was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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