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|การปรับเปลี่ยนรูปแบบการผลิตการปลูกข้าวโพดเลี้ยงสัตว์ไปสู่การทำเกษตรผสมผสานในตำบลศรีถ้อย อำเภอแม่สรวย จังหวัดเชียงราย
|Conversion of maize production to integrated farming in Si Thoi sub-district, Mae Suai district, Chiang Rai province
|เชียงใหม่ : บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่
|The objectives of the study were to explore the characteristics of livelihood assets that affect the conversation in agriculture and analyzed agricultural patterns that have changed from maize production to maize based integrated framing. Data collection were collected from 65 Karen farmer by using semi-structure interview as well as focus group discussion were applied with 20 key stakeholders such as farmers group leader. Data analysis was applied descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean, minimum and maximum following Sustainable Livelihood Framework (DFID, 2001). Multiple regression analysis applied to analysis the asset variables arising from the conversion to integrated farming. Result showed that, the agricultural production pattern has undergone significant changes in 3 phases. The first phase, during the past 100 years, the subsistence agriculture system. The second phase, from 1984 to 1991 was a monoculture system with 93.8% of farmers cultivating maize on an average of 15 rai. Every household were growly rice for substance on an average of 4.65 rai each. The third phase, from 1992 to 2021 was an integrated agricultural system accounted for 95.4%. Most of the farmers have 3 type of cultivation area, which are maize cultivation area 4.42 rai each, paddy area 3.49 rai each and mixed farming area 11.88 rai each. The integrated agricultural style is mixed planting and growing crops in combination with animal husbandry. An important adaptation characteristic was observed specialty the change plant species for crop replacement of maize. The method is to integrated crop in maize area. The main crop such as banana, according to the low cost of production, high demand for market and farmers have receiving stable prices that make income more stable. There are also livestock production, especially cattle and buffalo raising both in house and in the forest. Livelihoods outcome of the five assets from the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF). The result found that 1) Financial asset, an average of 2.48, farmer have higher income and stable income throughout the year. The cost of cultivation from integrated agriculture was reduced. 2) Natural assets change for the better with average 2.47, and soil observed more fertile. Cultivation of plants that thrive under the resources available in the area favorably. 3) Human assets found the average of 2.38, farmers had applied more knowledge and applied information that recovered to develop their production practices. Farmers managed agricultural waste to recycle in the farm. Reducing chemical used in agricultural practice heaved observed. 4) Physical assets, the average 2.27 of access to infrastructure such as agricultural tools, market resources and transport agricultural produce. 5) Social assets, the average 2.22 found income in kinship relationships. Farmers have gathered for agricultural activities and have continued to maintain and carry on the traditions and beliefs that linked to agriculture. Most of the farmers switched to mixed farming and more concern in integrated farming. Hypothesis testing using multiple regression analysis revealed that farming experience and farmland were associated with better outcomes from conversion in production to integrated farming which found significantly at the 0.01 level. Whereas agricultural extension and livestock were associated with the outcome of the transition to integrated farming which was found significant at the 0.05 level. There were three aspects that consistent with Roy adaptive behavior pattern (Roy and Andrews, 1999). The first was physiological mode, farmers with cultivated land has the opportunity to plan a variety of agricultural production processes. Second, self-concept mode, there was an adaptation when the benefits arising from the conversion to integrated agriculture were realized, with variables that clearly affected the results, namely, the increase in funding from the activities of livestock. The third was interdependence mode, the variables that resulted in the adaptation were farmers with long cultivation experience who exchanged experiences with each other. Including receiving agricultural promotion from relevant agencies.
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|AGRI: Independent Study (IS)
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