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|Chiang Mai dairy farmers’ adaptation to Free Trade Area (FTA) impacts
|เชียงใหม่ : บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่
|The objectives of this research were 1) to study personal characteristics, economy, society, and dairy farming condition of the dairy farmers in Chiang Mai 2) to evaluate factors that relate and support the adaption from the impact of the opening free-trade area of dairy farmers in Chiang Mai and.3) to analyze the problems, needs, and recommendations for adaptation to support the impact of the free-trade area of dairy farmers in Chiang Mai. The population of this research was 821 dairy farmers, who are the member of 9 dairy cooperatives in Chiang Mai. The sample size was calculated by applying Taro Yamane's formula with a tolerance level of 0.07, a sample size of 164 people, and simplified sampling by the irrevocable list lottery method. An interview questionnaire was used to collect data with a confidence level of 0.92 using Cronbach's method during September -December 2020. The statistics used to analyze the data were frequency, percentage, mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation. Hypotheses were tested using Enter multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the majority of farmers are male with an average age of 50.3 years with a primary level of education, had 14.5 years of experience and the farmers have heirs in their dairy farm. There was a combination of household labor with hired labor using an average number of laborers of 3.6 people per farm. In 2020, farmers had an average net income from dairy farming of 90,817.07 baht per month and an average outstanding debt of 499,330.77 baht. However, most of the farmers have no social position. In addition, in 2020, it was found that farmers received information about the free-trade area an average of 4.48 times per month and the frequency of contact with related officers in dairy farming was an average of 5.84 times per 3 months. Regarding the condition of dairy cow farming, it was found that as the date of the interview, farmers had an average number of 22.40 milking cows with an average area of 4.30 rai of ranch for raising dairy cows. Farmers used the cost of concentrated feed for raising dairy cows on an average of 52,105.91 baht per month. Farmers had a moderate level of the overall perception of the free-trade area (FTA) (average mean of 1.82), and farmers had to adjust to cope with the impact of the free-trade area (FTA) which divided into 3 aspects as follows: economic adaptation was at a moderate level (average mean of 2.06), an adjustment in dairy farming conditions was at a moderate level (average mean of 1.90), and social adaptation was at a moderate level (average mean of 1.79), respectively. The hypothesis-testing results revealed that out of 15 independent variables, 2 independent variables were positively correlated with the farmers' adaptation which were education level with a statistically significant relationship (P<0.05) and perceptions of free trade area with statistically significant relationship (P<0.01). Problems, needs, and recommendations for adaptation to support the impact of the free-trade area found that farmers face problems of an expensive concentrated food and an epidemic. Therefore, the government should help guarantee the price and purchase all raw milk that can be produced. The farmers have suggested for the government to help take care and find measurements that support the impact of the upcoming of the free-trade area for farmers in the future. mendations obtain from this research were government and related officials dairy cooperatives that are close to farmers should provide farmers with related information about the free-trade areas thoroughly and regularly. It should be emphasized on the farmers, who are older or have lower education primary school. In addition, issuing the measurement to support the impact on farmers in the future such as funding or other factors for farmers in the early stages of adaptation, especially, encouraging farmers to use technology that will increase the efficiency of raw milk production or reduce costs within the dairy farm.
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