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Title: Morphology of sensilla on antennae and maxillary palpi and filarial infections of adult female Simulium nigrogilvum (Diptera: Simuliidae)
Other Titles: สัณฐานของอวัยวะรับความรู้สึกบนหนวด และแมกซิลลารีพาลไพ และการติดเชื้อหนอนพยาธิฟิลาเรียของแมลงริ้นดำตัวเต็มวัยเพศเมีย Simulium nigrogilvum (Diptera: Simuliidae)
Authors: Huang, Fan
Authors: Atiporn Saeung
Benjawan Pitasawat
Anuluck Junkum
Jassada Saingamsook
Wichai Srisuka
Huang, Fan
Keywords: Black flies;Diptera
Issue Date: Apr-2022
Publisher: Chiang Mai : Graduate School, Chiang Mai University
Abstract: Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are known as vectors of disease agents in humans and livestock, with some species being vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the filarial nematode that is the causative agent of human onchocerciasis. Nematode infections in adult female black flies have been reported from some areas in northern and western Thailand, but not from other regions of Thailand. In this study, wild-caught adult female black flies from the central region of Thailand were examined for infections with nematodes. Collections of adult females were carried out at Khlong Lan District, Kamphaeng Phet Province, central Thailand. A molecular approach, based on the mitochondrial (coxl, 12S rRNA) and nuclear (188 rRNA) genes, was used to identify the species of nematodes recovered from the specimens collected. A total of 911 wild-caught adult black flies were collected. Simulium nigrogilvum was the most abundant species (n = 708), followed by S. doipuiense complex (n = 179), S. chamlongi (n = 11), S. umphangense (n = 10), S. chumpornense (n = 1), S. multistriatum species-group (n = 1), and S. maewongense (n = 1). Nematode infections were detected in nine specimens of S. nigrogilyum, of which two were positive for filarial worms (one worm each, infection rate 0.28%) and seven were positive for non-filarial nematodes (11 worms in total, infection rate 0.99%). The two filarial nematodes (third-stage larvae) were identified molecularly as Onchocerca species type I, while the 11 non-filarial nematodes were classified into ascaridoid (n = 2), tylenchid (n =6) and mermithid (n = 3) nematodes. The results of this study demonstrated that adult female S. nigrogilvum were parasitized with diverse nematodes (filarial and non-filarial). Detection of the infective larvae of Onchocerca sp. type I in S. nigrogilvum confirms that occurrence of zoonotic onchocerciasis is highly possible in Thailand. Additional in-depth investigation of the morphology, life cycle and host-parasite relationship of nematodes that parasitized this black fly host is still needed. Antennae and maxillary palpi are the most important sensory organs involved in the behaviors of black flies. The ultrastructure of sensilla on these sensory appendages of two human-biting black fly species, Similium nigrogilvum and Simulium umphangense, was studied for the first time. Wild adult females of both species were collected in Umphang District, Tak Province, western Thailand. The morphology and distribution of sensilla were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Overall, the morphology of the antennae and maxillary palpi and distribution of sensilla are similar in the two species. Four major types of sensilla were found on the antennae of both species: sensilla basiconica (three subtypes), coeloconica, chaetica (four subtypes), and trichodea. However, sensilla basiconica subtype IV are only present on the antennal surface of S. nigrogilvum. Sensilla trichodea are the most abundant among the four types of sensilla that occur on the antennae of both species. Significant differences in the length of the antennae (scape and flagellomere IX), length of the maxillary palpi (whole and palpal segments I, III, IV and V), and the length and basal width of four sensilla types (trichodea, chaetica, basiconica, and coeloconica) were found. In addition, two types of sensilla were observed on the maxillary palpi: sensilla chaetica (three subtypes) and bulb-shaped sensilla. Differences were observed in the numbers of bulb-shaped sensilla in the sensory vesicles of S. nigrogilvum and S. umphangense. The findings are compared with the sensilla of other insects, and the probable functions of each sensillum type are discussed. The anatomical data on sensory organs derived from this study will help to better understand black fly behavior.
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