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Title: Modeling the spatial transmission and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N6) among poultry farms in Central Luzon, the Philippines
Other Titles: แบบจำลองการแพร่กระจายเชิงพื้นที่และการควบคุมการแพร่ระบาดของเชื้อไข้หวัดนกชนิดที่ก่อโรครุนแรง (เอ็ช 5 เอ็น6) ในฟาร์มสัตว์ปีกในลูซอนกลาง ประเทศฟิลิปปินส์
Authors: Salvador, Roderick Toquero
Authors: Veerasak Punyapornwithaya
Kannika Na Lampang
Warangkhana Chaisowwong
Salvador, Roderick Toquero
Issue Date: Oct-2020
Publisher: เชียงใหม่ : บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่
Abstract: The Philippines confirmed its first epidemic of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) on August 11, 2017. It ended in November of 2017. Despite the successful management of the epidemic, re-emergence is a continuous threat. The objectives of this study were to conduct a mathematical model to assess the spatial transmission of HPAI among poultry farms in Central Luzon and to create a risk map based on the reproduction number (R0) of each poultry farm. Different control strategies and the current government protocol of 1 km radius pre-emptive culling (PEC) from infected farms were evaluated. The alternative strategies include 0.5km PEC, 1.5km PEC, 2 km PEC, 2.5 km PEC, and 3 km PEC, no pre-emptive culling (NPEC). The NPEC scenario was further modelled with a time of government notification set at 24hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the detection. Disease spread scenarios under each strategy were generated using an SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed) stochastic model. A spatial transmission kernel was calculated and used to represent all potential routes of infection between farms. We assumed that the latent period occurs between 1-2 days, disease detection at 5-7 days post-infection, notification of authorities at 5-7 days post-detection and start of culling at 1-3 days post notification. The epidemic scenarios were compared based on the number of infected farms, the total number of culled farms, and the duration of the epidemic. A risk map has been created based on the calculated Ri. There were 882 (76.63%) farms with 𝑅0< 1. Farms with 𝑅0 ≥1 were all located in Pampanga Province. These farms were concentrated in the towns of San Luis (n= 12) and Candaba (n= 257). Our results revealed that the current protocol is the best option compared with the other alternative interventions considered among farms with 𝑅0≥ 1. Shortening the culling radius to 0.5 km increased the duration of the epidemic. Further increase in the PEC zone decreased the duration of the epidemic but may not justify the increased number of farms to be culled. Nonetheless, the no-pre-emptive culling (NPEC) strategy can be an effective alternative to the current protocol if farm managers inform the government immediately within 24 hours of observation of the presence of HPAI in their farms. Moreover, if notification is made on days 1-3 after the detection, the scale and length of the outbreak have been significantly reduced. In conclusion, this study provided a comparison of various control measures for confronting the spread of HPAI infection using the simulation model. Policy makers can use this information to enhance the effectiveness of the current control strategy.
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