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dc.contributor.authorSeyyed Morteza Hoseinien_US
dc.contributor.authorHamid Rajabiesterabadien_US
dc.contributor.authorMarzieh Abbasien_US
dc.contributor.authorKaveh Khosravianien_US
dc.contributor.authorSeyed Hossein Hoseinifaren_US
dc.contributor.authorHien Van Doanen_US
dc.description.abstractThe present study was conducted to find the effects of dietary lactic acid (LA) supplementation on growth performance, hematological characteristics, humoral antioxidant and immunological factors, intestinal gene expression and bacteriological parameters in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The fish (104 ± 0.90 g) were randomly distributed in twelve tanks (150 L water) as four treatments, receiving diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10, and 20 g/kg LA for 70 days. At the end of the feeding trial, no significant differences were observed in the fish growth performance and survival among the treatments. Blood/plasma red blood cell (5–20 g/kg LA), white blood cell (10 g/kg LA), hematocrit (5 and 10 g/kg LA), hemoglobin (5 and 10 g/kg LA), superoxide dismutase (10 g/kg LA), glutathione peroxidase (10 g/kg LA), total antioxidant capacity (10 g/kg LA), lysozyme (5–20 g/kg LA), and alternative complement activity (10 g/kg LA) significantly increased, as malondialdehyde (10 g/kg LA) significantly decreased in the LA-treated fish. Dietary LA supplementation induced no significant changes in the intestinal defensin gene expression, but significantly up-regulated the expression of toll-like receptor-3 (5–20 g/kg LA), Mx-9 (5–20 g/kg LA), and heat shock protein-70 (5 g/kg LA) genes; the highest expressions were observed at 5 g/kg LA supplementation. Dietary LA supplementation significantly increased total bacterial count (5 and 10 g/kg LA), Lactobacillus sp. (5–20 g/kg LA), and Bacteroides sp. (5–20 g/kg LA), but decreased Streptococcus iniae (5–20 g/kg LA) in the fish intestine; the highest Lactobacillus sp. And Bacteroides sp. Were observed in 10 and 5 g/kg LA supplementation, respectively. Overall, dietary LA supplementation, although has no significant effects on the fish growth performance, is beneficial to improve humoral antioxidant parameters, humoral and intestinal immunological parameters and intestinal microflora. According to the results, dietary 5–10 g/kg LA is recommended for the formulation of rainbow trout feed.en_US
dc.subjectAgricultural and Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental Scienceen_US
dc.subjectImmunology and Microbiologyen_US
dc.titleModulation of humoral immunological and antioxidant responses and gut bacterial community and gene expression in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by dietary lactic acid supplementationen_US
article.title.sourcetitleFish and Shellfish Immunologyen_US
article.volume125en_US Fisheries Research Organizationen_US Modares Universityen_US Azad Universityen_US of Guilanen_US University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resourcesen_US Mai Universityen_US
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