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dc.contributor.authorEhsan Ahmadifaren_US
dc.contributor.authorMahboubeh Eslamien_US
dc.contributor.authorNaser Kalhoren_US
dc.contributor.authorAmine Zaretabaren_US
dc.contributor.authorSedigheh Mohammadzadehen_US
dc.contributor.authorMohsen Shahriari Moghadamen_US
dc.contributor.authorMorteza Yousefien_US
dc.contributor.authorMehdi Ahmadifaren_US
dc.contributor.authorSeyed Hossein Hoseinifaren_US
dc.contributor.authorTonapha Pusadeeen_US
dc.contributor.authorHien van Doanen_US
dc.description.abstractOrganic acids are active substances required for improving the productivity and wellbeing of aquatic animals. Herein, the study investigated the effects of sodium propionate on growth performance, antioxidative and immune responses, and growth-related genes expression in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). For eight weeks, fish fed sodium propionate at 0, 1.2, 2.5, and 5 g kg−1. The final weight, weight gain, and SGR were substantially increased while FCR decreased by dietary sodium propionate at 2.5 and 5 g kg−1 (P < 0.05). The expression of Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was markedly upregulated (P < 0.05) by dietary sodium propionate in the gills and livers of beluga. The highest mRNA level of GH and IGF-1 has been observed in fish fed a 2.5 g sodium propionate/kg diet. The red blood cells count, and hemoglobin level were meaningfully increased (P < 0.05) by 2.5 and 5 g sodium propionate/kg diet compared with 0 and 1.2 g kg−1 levels. Further, the hematocrit level was increased (P < 0.05) by a dietary 5 g sodium propionate/kg diet. The total protein level and lysozyme activity were meaningfully increased (P < 0.05) by 2.5 and 5 g sodium propionate/kg diet compared with 0 and 1.2 g kg−1 levels. The highest superoxide dismutase was observed in fish fed 2.5 g sodium propionate/kg diet. Catalase activity was significantly higher in fish fed 5 g kg−1 than 1.2 g kg−1. The glutathione peroxidase activity was markedly higher in fish fed 2.5, and 5 g kg−1 than fish fed control diet. The lowest malondialdehyde levels were observed in fish fed 1.2, and 2.5 g sodium propionate/kg diets. Moreover, the highest mucosal total protein, total immunoglobulin and lysozyme were recorded in fish fed 2.5, and 5 g sodium propionate/kg diets. The obtained results indicate that dietary sodium propionate is recommended at 2.5–5 g kg−1 to improve beluga sturgeon's growth performance, feed utilization, and wellbeing.en_US
dc.subjectAgricultural and Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental Scienceen_US
dc.subjectImmunology and Microbiologyen_US
dc.titleEffect of a diet enriched with sodium propionate on growth performance, antioxidant property, innate-adaptive immune response, and growth-related genes expression in critically endangered beluga sturgeon (Huso huso)en_US
article.title.sourcetitleFish and Shellfish Immunologyen_US
article.volume125en_US Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Universityen_US of Zabolen_US University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resourcesen_US Instituteen_US Universityen_US Mai Universityen_US Sturgeon Culture Centeren_US Center for Educationen_US
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