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dc.contributor.authorNoriyuki Hirataen_US
dc.contributor.authorFutoshi Suizuen_US
dc.contributor.authorMami Matsuda-Lennikoven_US
dc.contributor.authorTsutomu Tanakaen_US
dc.contributor.authorTatsuma Edamuraen_US
dc.contributor.authorSatoko Ishigakien_US
dc.contributor.authorThoria Doniaen_US
dc.contributor.authorPathrapol Lithanatudomen_US
dc.contributor.authorChikashi Obuseen_US
dc.contributor.authorToshihiko Iwanagaen_US
dc.contributor.authorMasayuki Noguchien_US
dc.description.abstract© 2018 The Author(s) Serine–threonine kinase Akt (also known as PKB, protein kinase B), a core intracellular mediator of cell survival, is involved in various human cancers and has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of autophagy in mammalian cells. Nonetheless, the physiological function of Akt in the lysosomes is currently unknown. We have reported previously that PtdIns(3)P-dependent lysosomal accumulation of the Akt–Phafin2 complex is a critical step for autophagy induction. Here, to characterize the molecular function of activated Akt in the lysosomes in the process of autophagy, we searched for the molecules that interact with the Akt complex at the lysosomes after induction of autophagy. By time-of-flight–mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) analysis, kinases of the VRK family, a unique serine–threonine family of kinases in the human kinome, were identified. VRK2 interacts with Akt1 and Akt2, but not with Akt3; the C terminus of Akt and the N terminus of VRK2 facilitate the interaction of Akt and VRK2 in mammalian cells. The kinase-dead form of VRK2A (KD VRK2A) failed to interact with Akt in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments showed that, in the lysosomes, Akt interacted with VRK2A but not with VRK2B or KD VRK2A. Immunofluorescent assays revealed that VRK2 and phosphorylated Akt accumulated in the lysosomes after autophagy induction. WT VRK2A, but not KD VRK2A or VRK2B, facilitated accumulation of phosphorylated Akt in the lysosomes. Downregulation of VRK2 abrogated the lysosomal accumulation of phosphorylated Akt and impaired nuclear localization of TFEB; these events coincided to inhibition of autophagy induction. The VRK2–Akt complex is required for control of lysosomal size, acidification, bacterial degradation, and for viral replication. Moreover, lysosomal VRK2–Akt controls cellular proliferation and mitochondrial outer-membrane stabilization. Given the roles of autophagy in the pathogenesis of human cancer, the current study provides a novel insight into the oncogenic activity of VRK2–Akt complexes in the lysosomes via modulation of autophagy.en_US
dc.subjectBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biologyen_US
dc.titleFunctional characterization of lysosomal interaction of Akt with VRK2en_US
article.title.sourcetitleOncogeneen_US Universityen_US of Tantaen_US University School of Medicineen_US Mai Universityen_US
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