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|Factors related to wellness of farmers in Hang Dong District, Chiang Mai Province
|เชียงใหม่ : บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่
|The objective of this research were to 1) some basic socio-economic characteristics of farmers in Hang Dong District. 2) Wellness of farmers in Hang Dong district Chiang Mai province and 3) factors related to the wellness of farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province, The population used in the study was rice farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province 1,700 registered with the Hang Dong District Agricultural Office Planting year 2017/2018. The sample size was determined by using the formula of Taro Yamane at the 93% confidence level, receiving 183 samples. The data were collected using an interview form with reliability equal to 0.825. The data collection between April 2018 and May 2018. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as frequency percent, average, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, and used stepwise multiple regression analysis to test the hypothesis, which can be summarized as follows. The results revealed that the farmers were male, with an average age of 58.35 years old, and had finished education at the primary level. The farmers had experienced of rice cultivation in average of 34.50 years. In 2017/2018, farmers had an average household income of 107,693.99 Baht. They had an income from the average rice planting of 33,195.41 Bath and an outcome from the average rice planting of 5,427.32 Bath. And the farmers had debt for an average of 97,590.00 Bath. , which farmers had an average agricultural area of 7.10 rai, most of the farmers 78.80 percent. It was popular to grow sticky rice species of San Pa Tong 1 only. The average rice yield was 696.40 kg / rai. Most farmers rented land for agriculture and used farm labor in their households. From the study of sources funds used by farmers to grow rice, it was found that most of them 74.30% use their own capital to grow rice. And the most farmers do not had a social position. According, To the study of farmers' treatment of diseases (from June 2017 to interview date), it was found that 77.60% of farmers had never received treatment for disease but if there is a need for treatment, most of the farmers, 96.7 percent, use the district hospital services mainly. Which most farmers do not have any underlying disease. And the important sources of information on rice cultivation are agricultural extension officers, broadcasting towers, other farmers, radio and television, respectively. The level of wellness of farmers in HangDong district, Chiang Mai Province In this research, the level of wellness of farmers was classified into 4 as follows: 1) Physical wellness 2) Mental wellness 3) Social wellness 4) Spiritual wellness, was found that the farmers had the average level overall moderate (mean score 2.83). The results were as follows: 1) Farmers had the Physical wellness level was moderate (mean score 3.33) 2) Farmer had the Mental wellness level was a moderate (mean score 3.25) 3) Farmer had the Social wellness level was a moderate (mean score 3.10). And 4) Farmer had the Spiritual wellness level was a moderate (mean score 2.94), respectively From the hypothesis testing, it was found that the related factors to the wellness of farmers in Hangdong District, Chiang Mai Province were as follows Physical wellness found that 2 independent variables were related to the level of Physical wellness with a value of R2 equal to 0.047, which could explain the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable 4.70%, namely 1) Land ownership was positively related to the Physical wellness of farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province and 2) The rice plantation area size was significantly associated with the Physical wellness of farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province statistically significant at the level of 0.01 Mental wellness that there was 1 independent variable that was associated with the level of Mental wellness with a value of R2 equal to 0.071, which could explain the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. 7.10% was an outstanding debt burden. There was a negative relationship with the mental health of farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province statistically significant at the level of 0.01 Social wellness found that 2 independent variables correlated with the Social wellness with a value of R2 equal to 0.064, which could explain the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable 6.40%, namely 1) The experience of rice cultivation was positively related to the Social wellness of farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province At the level of 0.01 and 2) Income from rice cultivation was positively related to the Social wellness of farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province statistically significant at the level of 0.01 Spiritual wellness that there was 1 independent variable that was associated with the Spiritual wellness with R2 of 0.043, which could explain the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. 4.30% was the experience of rice cultivation related to the Spiritual wellness of farmers in Hang Dong district. Chiang Mai Province statistically significant at the level of 0.01 In this study, problems found that the most farmers faced a shortage of quality seeds. And not enough Faced with the problem of rice production damaged by natural disasters, which tends to happen frequently continuously both from long-standing floods, drought, disease and insect infestations Causing damage to farmers' rice yields Farmers with existing debts. When faced with natural disasters crisis often unable to cope with the problems that arise As a result, the need to borrow money to invest more. Moreover, the production cost is high. When changing the production system to modern production but there is no control on the price of the production factor. In addition, farmers have to use higher amounts of inputs every year. To accelerate the maintenance of the soil to get good produce, farmers have higher production costs every year, there is no decrease, and farmers are faced with unstable production prices. The needs of the farmers found that they needed to support the villagers to manage rice varieties by themselves. By emphasizing the potential of farmers as self-managers and want the government to support in terms of academics in selecting good rice varieties and suitable for each area. Product insurance from natural disasters when problems arise, resulting in higher production costs. From re-investment Or loss due to unable to harvest produce make farmers need Product assurance from natural disasters In addition, farmers also need to promote a group of farmers so they can negotiate prices and sell their produce. And promoting knowledge about the use of agricultural technology to reduce costs In addition, farmers also want to tackle debt problems. Rapid economic and social changes Farmers therefore have to adjust the methods of growing rice. To be able to adapt to changing situations Using external inputs that requires more investment And more importantly, due to the decline in rice prices Farmers therefore have incomes that are insufficient with essential expenses. Need to borrow debt to spend in the family and use it for the next investment. The suggestion of this study found that: 1) Should promote knowledge and understanding about various aspects of health To achieve a deeper understanding in order to create a positive attitude for the target group Both rice farmers household members of rice farmers and the children of rice farmers and 2)Government officials or involved officials should give priority, especially encouraging farmers to use more machinery that will help compensate for the decline in labor This will lead to the development of technologies and innovations that will help the agricultural sector become more productive with less dependence on labor and 3)The most of the farmers are elderly and have a lot of experience in growing rice. But at the same time, the farmers' heirs are not interested in growing rice. Therefore, there should be a stimulus or promotion for the development or modern ideas from the new generation.
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