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dc.contributor.authorSurapon Nochaiwongen_US
dc.contributor.authorChidchanok Ruengornen_US
dc.contributor.authorRatanaporn Awiphanen_US
dc.contributor.authorPenkarn Kanjanaraten_US
dc.contributor.authorYongyuth Ruantaen_US
dc.contributor.authorChabaphai Phosuyaen_US
dc.contributor.authorWaraporn Boonchiengen_US
dc.contributor.authorSirisak Nantaen_US
dc.contributor.authorWilaiwan Chongruksuten_US
dc.contributor.authorKednapa Thavornen_US
dc.contributor.authorNahathai Wongpakaranen_US
dc.contributor.authorTinakon Wongpakaranen_US
dc.description.abstractObjective Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, social stigma towards COVID-19 infection has become a major component of public discourse and social phenomena. As such, we aimed to develop and validate the COVID-19 Public Stigma Scale (COVID-PSS). Design and setting National-based survey cross-sectional study during the lockdown in Thailand. Participants We invited the 4004 adult public to complete a set of measurement tools, including the COVID-PSS, global fear of COVID-19, perceived risk of COVID-19 infection, Bogardus Social Distance Scale, Pain Intensity Scale and Insomnia Severity Index. Methods Factor structure dimensionality was constructed and reaffirmed with model fit by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and non-parametric item response theory (IRT) analysis. Psychometric properties for validity and reliability were tested. An anchor-based approach was performed for classifying the proper cut-off scores. Results After factor analysis, IRT analysis and test for model fit, we created the final 10-item COVID-PSS with a three-factor structure: Stereotype, prejudice and fear. Face and content validity were established through the public and experts' perspectives. The COVID-PSS was significantly correlated (Spearman rank, 95% CI) with the global fear of COVID-19 (0.68, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.70), perceived risk of COVID-19 infection (0.79, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.80) and the Bogardus Social Distance Scale (0.50, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.53), indicating good convergent validity. The correlation statistics between the COVID-PSS and the Pain Intensity Scale and Insomnia Severity Index were <0.2, supporting the discriminant validity. The reliability of the COVID-PSS was satisfactory, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.86) and test-retest reproducibility (intraclass correlation of 0.94, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.96). The proposed cut-off scores were as follows: No/minimal (≤18), moderate (19-25) and high (≥26) public stigma towards COVID-19 infection. Conclusions The COVID-PSS is practical and suitable for measuring stigma towards COVID-19 in a public health survey. However, cross-cultural adaptation may be needed.en_US
dc.titleCOVID-19 Public Stigma Scale (COVID-PSS): Development, validation, psychometric analysis and interpretationen_US
article.title.sourcetitleBMJ Openen_US
article.volume11en_US Hospitalen_US of Ottawaen_USé d'Ottawa, Faculté de Médecineen_US Hospital Research Instituteen_US Mai Universityen_US
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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