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dc.contributor.authorHien Van Doanen_US
dc.contributor.authorMehdi Soltanien_US
dc.contributor.authorAlexandra Leitãoen_US
dc.contributor.authorShafigh Shafieien_US
dc.contributor.authorSepideh Asadien_US
dc.contributor.authorAlan J. Lymberyen_US
dc.contributor.authorEinar Ringøen_US
dc.description.abstractStreptococcosis, particularly that caused by S. iniae and S. agalactiae, is a major re-emerging bacterial disease seriously affecting the global sustainability of aquaculture development. Despite a wide spread of the disease in aquaculture, few studies have been directed at assessing the in vitro antagonistic activity and in vivo efficacy of medicinal herbs and other plants against streptococcal agents. Most in vitro studies of plant extractives against S. iniae and S. agalactiae have found antibacterial activity, but essential oils, especially those containing eugenol, carvacrol or thymol, are more effective. Although essential oils have shown better anti-streptococcal activity in in vitro assays, in vivo bioassays require more attention. The extracts examined under in vivo conditions show moderate efficacy, increasing the survival rate of infected fish, probably through the enhancement of immunity before challenge bioassays. The available data, however, lack dosage optimization, toxicity and bioavailability assays of a specific plant or its bioactive compound in fish organs; hence, it is difficult to judge the validation of clinical efficacy for the prevention or treatment of fish streptococcosis. Despite the known bioactive compounds of many tested plants, few data are available on their mode of action towards streptococcal agents. This review addresses the efficacy of medicinal plants to fish streptococcosis and discusses the current gaps.en_US
dc.subjectAgricultural and Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.titleStreptococcosis a Re-Emerging Disease in Aquaculture: Significance and Phytotherapyen_US
article.volume12en_US Universityen_US of Tehranen_US Norges Arktiske Universiteten_US Universityen_US Universityen_US Mai Universityen_US
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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