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|Title:||Low-polar extract from seed of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala modulates initiation and promotion stages of chemically-induced carcinogenesis in rats|
|Keywords:||Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics|
|Abstract:||© 2020 The Authors Background: Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala is a local fruit mainly cultivated in the north of Thailand. Our previous study has reported that the methanol extract of C. nervosum seed presented antimutagenicity in a Salmonella mutation assay. The present study focused on the effect of a low-polar extract of C. nervosum seed on the early stages of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)- and dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. Methods: Dried C. nervosum seed powder was extracted using dichloromethane. To study its effect on the initiation stage of carcinogenesis of rats, they were fed with various doses of C. nervosum seed extract (CSE) for 21 days. DEN injection was used to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis and partial hepatectomy was performed to amplify mutated hepatocytes resulting in micronucleated hepatocyte formation. To study the role of CSE on the promotion stage, rats were injected with DEN and DMH to induce preneoplastic lesions and the numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in the liver and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon were measured. This was followed by CSE administration for 10 weeks. The inhibitory mechanisms of CSE on initiation and promotion stages, including xenobiotic metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis, were investigated. Results: The total phenolic content in CSE was 80.34 ± 2.29 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g of extract and 2,4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone was found to be a major flavonoid. The main terpenoids in CSE were β-selinene, α-selinene, γ-selinene and o-cymene while 24(Z)-methyl-25-homocholesterol was a major phytosterol. CSE significantly decreased the number of micronucleated hepatocytes in DEN-initiated rats and enhanced the activities of hepatic glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase. Furthermore, the formation of preneoplastic lesions in the liver and colon was statistically reduced by CSE. CSE also diminished cell proliferation in the liver and colon indicated by the number of PCNA positive cells. However, CSE did not alter the numbers of apoptotic hepatocytes and colonocytes in DEN- and DMH-initiated rats. Conclusions: The dichloromethane extract of C. nervosum seed demonstrated chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced carcinogenesis in both initiation and promotion stages in rats. The inhibitory mechanism might be involved in the modulation of hepatic detoxifying enzymes and suppression of hepatocyte and colonocyte proliferation.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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