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|Title:||An in vitro α-neurotoxin—nachr binding assay correlates with lethality and in vivo neutralization of a large number of elapid neurotoxic snake venoms from four continents|
Kae Yi Tanid
Choo Hock Tan
José María Gutiérrezid
|Abstract:||© 2020 Pruksaphon et al. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro assay for use in place of in vivo assays of snake venom lethality and antivenom neutralizing potency. A novel in vitro assay has been developed based on the binding of post-synaptically acting α-neurotoxins to nicotinic acetyl-choline receptor (nAChR), and the ability of antivenoms to prevent this binding. The assay gave high correlation in previous studies with the in vivo murine lethality tests (Median Lethal Dose, LD50), and the neutralization of lethality assays (Median Effective Dose, ED50) by antisera against Naja kaouthia, Naja naja and Bungarus candidus venoms. Here we show that, for the neurotoxic venoms of 20 elapid snake species from eight genera and four conti-nents, the in vitro median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for α-neurotoxin binding to purified nAChR correlated well with the in vivo LD50s of the venoms (R2 = 0.8526, p<0.001). Furthermore, using this assay, the in vitro ED50s of a horse pan-specific antiserum against these venoms correlated significantly with the corresponding in vivo murine ED50s, with R2 = 0.6896 (p < 0.01). In the case of four elapid venoms devoid or having a very low con-centration of α-neurotoxins, no inhibition of nAChR binding was observed. Within the philosophy of 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) in animal testing, the in vitro α-neurotoxin-nAChR binding assay can effectively substitute the mouse lethality test for toxicity and antivenom potency evaluation for neurotoxic venoms in which α-neurotoxins pre-dominate. This will greatly reduce the number of mice used in toxicological research and antivenom production laboratories. The simpler, faster, cheaper and less variable in vitro assay should also expedite the development of pan-specific antivenoms against various medically important snakes in many parts of the world.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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