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Title: Possible roles of monocytes/macrophages in response to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infections in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)
Authors: Saralee Srivorakul
Thunyamas Guntawang
Varankpicha Kochagul
Kornravee Photichai
Tidaratt Sittisak
Thittaya Janyamethakul
Khajohnpat Boonprasert
Siripat Khammesri
Warangkhana Langkaphin
Veerasak Punyapornwithaya
Phongsakorn Chuammitri
Chatchote Thitaram
Kidsadagon Pringproa
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2019
Abstract: Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) is the primary cause of acute, highly fatal, hemorrhagic diseases in young Asian elephants. Although monocytopenia is frequently observed in EEHV-HD cases, the role monocytes play in EEHV-disease pathogenesis is unknown. This study seeks to explain the responses of monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of EEHV-HD. Samples of blood, frozen tissues, and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from EEHV1A-HD, EEHV4-HD, co-infected EEHV1A and 4-HD, and EEHV-negative calves were analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the persistent EEHV4-infected and EEHV-negative calves were also studied. The results showed increased infiltration of Iba-1-positive macrophages in the inflamed tissues of the internal organs of elephant calves with EEHV-HD. In addition, cellular apoptosis also increased in the tissues of elephants with EEHV-HD, especially in the PBMCs, compared to the EEHV-negative control. In the PBMCs of persistent EEHV4-infected elephants, cytokine mRNA expression was high, particularly up-regulation of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Moreover, viral particles were observed in the cytoplasm of the persistent EEHV4-infected elephant monocytes. Our study demonstrated for the first time that apoptosis of the PBMCs increased in cases of EEHV-HD. Furthermore, this study showed that monocytes may serve as a vehicle for viral dissemination during EEHV infection in Asian elephants.
ISSN: 19326203
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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