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|Title:||LL-37 alone and in combination with IL17A enhances proinflammatory cytokine expression in parallel with hyaluronan metabolism in human synovial sarcoma cell line SW982—A step toward understanding the development of inflammatory arthritis|
|Keywords:||Agricultural and Biological Sciences|
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
|Abstract:||© 2019 Kuensaen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. LL-37 is the only human cathelicidin-family host defense peptide and has been reported to interact with invading pathogens causing inflammation at various body sites. Recent studies showed high levels of LL-37 in the synovial-lining membrane of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a common type of inflammatory arthritis. The present study aims to investigate the role of LL-37 on mechanisms associated with pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. The effects of LL-37 on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, hyaluronan (HA) metabolism-related genes, cell death-related pathways, and cell invasion were investigated in SW982, a human synovial sarcoma cell line. Time-course measurements of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators showed that LL-37 significantly induced IL6 and IL17A mRNA levels at early time points (3–6 hr). HA-metabolism-related genes (i.e., HA synthase 2 (HAS2), HAS3, hyaluronidase 1 (HYAL1), HYAL2, and CD44) were co-expressed in parallel. In combination, LL-37 and IL17A significantly enhanced PTGS2, TNF, and HAS3 gene expression concomitantly with the elevation of their respective products, PGE2, TNF, and HA. Cell invasion rates and FN1 gene expression were also significantly enhanced. However, LL-37 alone or combined with IL17A did not affect cell mortality or cell cycle. Treatment of SW982 cells with both LL-37 and IL17A significantly enhanced IKK and p65 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that the chronic production of a high level of LL-37 may synchronize with its downstream proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL17A, contributing to the co-operative enhancement of pathogenesis mechanisms of inflammatory arthritis, such as high production of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators together with the activation of HA-metabolism-associated genes and cell invasion.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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