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|Title:||Revisiting the cardioprotective effects of acetylcholine receptor activation against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury|
Siriporn C. Chattipakorn
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology|
|Abstract:||© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most common cause of acute myocardial injury and its most clinically significant form. The most effective treatment for AMI is to restore an adequate coronary blood flow to the ischemic myocardium as quickly as possible. However, reperfusion of an ischemic region can induce cardiomyocyte death, a phenomenon termed “myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury”. Disruption of cardiac parasympathetic (vagal) activity is a common hallmark of a variety of cardiovascular diseases including AMI. Experimental studies have shown that increased vagal activity exerts cardioprotective effects against myocardial I/R injury. In addition, acetylcholine (ACh), the principle cardiac vagal neurotransmitter, has been shown to replicate the cardioprotective effects of cardiac ischemic conditioning. Moreover, studies have shown that cardiomyocytes can synthesize and secrete ACh, which gives further evidence concerning the importance of the non-neuronal cholinergic signaling cascades. This suggests that the activation of ACh receptors is involved in cardioprotection against myocardial I/R injury. There are two types of ACh receptors (AChRs), namely muscarinic and nicotinic receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively). However, the effects of AChRs activation in cardioprotection during myocardial I/R are still not fully understood. In this review, we summarize the evidence suggesting the association between AChRs activation with both electrical and pharmacological interventions and the cardioprotection during myocardial I/R, as well as outline potential mechanisms underlying these cardioprotective effects.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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