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|Title:||Effectiveness of short-term and long-term zidovudine prophylaxis on detection of HIV-1 subtype E in human placenta and vertical transmission|
Paul S. Thorner
|Keywords:||Immunology and Microbiology|
|Abstract:||Antiretroviral treatment with zidovudine (ZDV) from the 14th week until the end of pregnancy has markedly reduced the vertical transmission rate of HIV-1 in Europe and North America. A shorter duration of treatment has reduced this rate in Africa and Southeast Asia to a lesser degree. In Southeast Asia, subtype E is the major subtype rather than subtype B as in Western countries. The goals of this study were to determine the optimal duration of ZDV prophylaxis for subtype E and to confirm its effectiveness at the histologic level. Fifty pregnant women seropositive for HIV-1 subtype E were given ZDV prophylaxis consisting of 300 mg administered twice daily, switching to 300 mg administered every 3 hours from the onset of labor until delivery. Twenty-seven received "short-term" ZDV lasting 14 to 35 days before delivery, whereas the other 23 received "long-term" ZDV lasting 62 to 92 days. The effectiveness of ZDV prophylaxis was assessed by detection of HIV-1 in the placenta using in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All babies in this study were tested up to one year of age. Three were not positive until after one month of age, but one was positive as a neonate. Four neonates were positive for HIV-1 as detected by PCR on peripheral blood, including one in the neonatal period. All cases were from the short-term prophylaxis group. Decidual glandular epithelial cells were the only cell type in the placenta that expressed HIV proviral DNA under ZDV prophylaxis. Sixty-seven percent of placentas in the short-term ZDV group showed more than occasional positive cells compared with 22% in the group receiving long-term ZDV prophylaxis (P < 0.02). This is first study to compare the effectiveness of short-term and long-term ZDV prophylaxis with respect to the presence of HIV in the placenta. Our study shows that longer (at least 60 days) prophylaxis is more effective in reducing HIV expression in the placenta and is associated with reduced transmission to neonates. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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