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|Title:||Potential mechanisms responsible for cardioprotective effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors|
Siriporn C. Chattipakorn
|Abstract:||© 2018 The Author(s). Diabetes mellitus currently affects over 350 million patients worldwide and is associated with many deaths from cardiovascular complications. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs with cardiovascular benefits beyond other antidiabetic drugs. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin significantly decreases the mortality rate from cardiovascular causes [38% relative risk reduction (RRR)], the mortality rate from all-causes (32% RRR) and the rate of heart failure hospitalization (35% RRR) in diabetic patients with established cardiovascular diseases. The possible mechanisms of SGLT-2 inhibitors are proposed to be systemic effects by hemodynamic and metabolic actions. However, the direct mechanisms are not fully understood. In this review, reports concerning the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors in models of diabetic cardiomyopathy, heart failure and myocardial ischemia from in vitro, in vivo as well as clinical reports are comprehensively summarized and discussed. By current evidences, it may be concluded that the direct effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors are potentially mediated through their ability to reduce cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and ionic dyshomeostasis.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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