Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and nanoemulsion for enhancing aqueous miscibility of Alpinia galanga oil|
|Keywords:||Agricultural and Biological Sciences|
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
|Abstract:||© 2017 Khumpirapang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Alpinia galanga oil (AGO) possesses various activities but low aqueous solubility limits its application particularly in aquatic animals. AGO has powerful activity on fish anesthesia. Ethanol used for enhancing water miscible of AGO always shows severe side effects on fish. The present study explores the development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) and nanoemulsions (NE) to deliver AGO for fish anesthesia with less or no alcohol. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the best SMEDDS-AGO formulation, whereas NE-AGO were developed by means of high-energy emulsification. The mean droplet size of the best SMEDDS-AGO was 82 ± 0.5 nm whereas that of NE-AGO was 48 ± 1.6 nm. The anesthetic effect of the developed SMEDDS-AGO and NE-AGO in koi (Cyprinus carpio) was evaluated and compared with AGO ethanolic solution (EtOH-AGO). It was found that the time of induction the fish to reach the surgical stage of anesthesia was dose dependent. NE-AGO showed significantly higher activity than SMEDDS-AGO and EtOH-AGO, respectively. EtOH-AGO caused unwanted hyperactivity in the fish. This side effect did not occur in the fish anesthetized with SMEDDS-AGO and NE-AGO. In conclusion, SMEDDS and NE are promising delivery systems for AGO.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Items in CMUIR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.