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|Title:||Determination of PM10 and its ion composition emitted from biomass burning in the chamber for estimation of open burning emissions|
|Abstract:||Biomass samples including agricultural waste (rice straw and maize residue) and forest leaf litter were collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand for the burning experiment in the self-designed stainless steel chamber to simulate the emissions of PM10. The burning of leaf litter emitted the highest PM10 (1.52±0.65gkg-1). The PM10-bound ions emitted from the burning of rice straw and maize residue showed the same trend, which was K+>Cl->SO42->NH4+>NO3- However, the emissions from maize residue burning were ~1.5-2.0times higher than those from the rice straw burning. The ion content emitted from leaf litter burning was almost the same for all ion species. Noticeably, K+and Cl-concentrations were ~2-4 times lower than those emitted from agricultural waste burning. It can be deduced that K+and Cl-were highly emitted from agricultural waste burning due to the use of fertilizer and herbicides in the field, respectively. Based on emission values obtained from the chamber, the pollutant emission rate from open burning was calculated. Burned areas in Chiang Mai Province were 3510 and 866km2in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Forest burning was 71-88%, while agricultural land burning accounted for 12-29% (rice field: crop field=1:3) of total burned area. Therefore, emissions of PM10 from open burning in Chiang Mai were 3051ton (2010) and 705ton (2011). Major ions emitted from agricultural waste burning were found to be K+and Cl-, while those from forest burning were SO42- and K+. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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