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Title: Co-infection with Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis taichui detected by human fecal examination in Chomtong district, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Authors: Chalobol Wongsawad
Anawat Phalee
Waraporn Noikong
Suksan Chuboon
Choosak Nithikathkul
Keywords: Immunology and Microbiology
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2012
Abstract: Diseases caused by the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini and the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis taichui, are clinically important, especially in the Northeast and North regions of Thailand. It is often difficult to distinguish between these trematode species using morphological methods due to the similarity of their eggs and larval stages both in mixed and co-infections. A sensitive, accurate, and specific detection method of these flukes is required for an effective epidemiological control program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of O. viverrini and H. taichui infections in human feces by using formalin-ether sedimentation and high annealing temperature random amplified polymorphic DNA (HAT-RAPD) PCR methods. Fecal specimens of people living along the Mae Ping River, Chomtong district were examined seasonally for trematode eggs using a compound microscope. Positive cases were analyzed in HAT-RAPD, DNA profiles were compared with adult stages to determine the actual species infected, and specific DNA markers of each fluke were also screened. Our results showed that out of 316 specimens, 62 were positive for fluke eggs which were pre-identified as O. viverrini and H. taichui. In addition, co-infection among these two fluke species was observed from only two specimens. The prevalence of H. taichui infections peaked in the hot-dry (19.62%), gradually decreased in the rainy (18.18%), and cool-dry seasons (14.54%), respectively. O. viverrini was found only in the hot-dry season (6.54%). For molecular studies, 5 arbitrary primers (Operon Technologies, USA) were individually performed in HAT-RAPD-PCR for the generation of polymorphic DNA profiles. The DNA profiles in all 62 positives cases were the same as those of the adult stage which confirmed our identifications. This study demonstrates the mixed infection of O. viverrini and H. taichui and confirms the extended distribution of O. viverrini in Northern Thailand. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
ISSN: 18730329
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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