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Title: Monitoring of cadmium toxicity in a Thai population with high-level environmental exposure
Authors: Teeyakasem W.
Nishijo M.
Honda R.
Satarug S.
Swaddiwudhipong W.
Ruangyuttikarn W.
Issue Date: 2007
Abstract: This study evaluated the utility of single and combined measurements of cadmium toxicity markers for surveillance purposes, using a sample of 224 individuals, 30-87 years of age, who were residents of cadmium polluted area in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Urinary cadmium levels excreted by them ranged between 1 and 58 microg/g creatinine with geometric mean of 8.2 microg/g creatinine which was 16-fold greater than the average for the general Thai population of 0.5 microg/g creatinine. The urinary markers evaluated were total protein, albumin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), lysozyme, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) and alpha1-microglobulin (alpha1-MG). Among these markers, only NAG showed a positive correlation with urinary cadmium in both male and female subjects with and without disease (r=0.43-0.71). Further, the prevalence rates for urinary NAG above 8 units/g creatinine (NAG-uria) increased with exposure levels in a dose dependent manner (p=0.05) among subjects with disease. In contrast, however, increased prevalence of beta2-MG above 0.4 mg/g creatinine (beta2-MG-uria) was associated with cadmium above 5 microg/g creatinine only in those without disease (POR=10.6 and 7.8 for 6-10 and >10 microg/g creatinine). Prevalence rates for abnormal excretion of all other markers, except albumin, were markedly increased among those having beta2-MG-uria with and without disease (chi2-test, p<or=0.001-0.02). Thus, urinary beta2-MG and NAG should be used together with urinary cadmium in the monitoring of renal toxicity in a population exposed to high-level cadmium coupled with high prevalence of chronic diseases.
ISSN: 0378-4274
Appears in Collections:MED: Journal Articles

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